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# Investing Soils and Drainage Problem

Background information: pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/of03-001/htmldocs/images/chart.pdf

Soil is peace of very fine particlesof rocks, there is always space there between each particle, there are pore.The amount of water material hold in, determined by porosity.

Permeability is how connect the porespace are.

Research Question:

How fast does water drain throughdifferent types of soil?

Hypothesis:

If using same amount of soil, sand,and water, then water get though fastest in sand.

Materials:

4 plastic 2-L soft-drink bottles withbottoms removed

4 plastic 2-Lsoft-drink bottles withtops cut off and a hole punched in the side

4 pieces of gauze or cheesecloth,about 8 cm ×8 cm

4 rubber bands

Potting soil

Sand

Clay mixed with soil

Gravel mixed with soil

1-L plastic container

Timer or watch

Permanent marker or wax pencil

Graduated cylinder or metricmeasuring cup (100 mL)

Beakers

Apron and goggles

Procedure:

Step 1: Place the bottle, put fourpiece of gauze on the tot of the bottom cut bottle

Step 2: Add 80 ml of sand in thebottle, put 70ml of water on the sand. At the same time you put the water,start the timer. Wait for water stop. Measure the time and the amount of watergoes down, count second per milliliter.

Step3: Change bottle throw the gauze, redo step one and two.

DataCollection:

 Time(Second) Milliliter Second per milliliter. Sands 169s 37.5ML 4.50s/ml Potting Soil 23s 42ML 0.54s/ml Clay Mix With Soil 390+s 4ML 97.5+s/ml Gravel Mix With Soil 783s 43ML 18.20s/ml

Conclusionand Evaluation:

We find the potting soil drains the fastest. Itdrain one milliliter in 0.54second. We find the drain speed is depending on how bigeach piece of little stone is. When pore small it is hard to drain.

That's because the Capillary adsorption, waterwould stay there and not going, so when surface area increase, water would staythere when that is a big piece of stone, it go quick. Another factor is howmush water is in it, if there was too much air, pore are connected so well,water go faster when it have more air.